Parents’ Bad Behavior at School Sports Events Has Gotten Extreme
A visio-vestibular home exercise program (VV-HEP) can provide an equitable and cost-effective method for therapy targeted towards visio-vestibular deficits that are common following concussion. The effects of a VV-HEP on improving concussion symptoms and visio-vestibular function are unclear.
Purpose: Determine the effect of VV-HEP on symptoms and visio-vestibular function in concussed pediatric patients.
Methods: This study included 527 patients [294 female (55.8%); age = 14.4 ± 2.1 years] reporting to a specialty care concussion center within 28 days of injury and for a first follow-up within 60 days of injury. Patients completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI) and Visio-Vestibular Examination (VVE). Patients were prescribed the VV-HEP at initial visit, with exercises including saccades, gaze stability, convergence, and balance, and instructed to complete these 1–2 times/day. At follow-up, patients self-reported their VV-HEP progress as (1) has not done, (2) in progress, or (3) completed. Primary outcomes included VV-HEP progress at follow-up, PCSI endorsement and severity, VVE subtests (normal/abnormal), and total VVE score (abnormal = 2 + abnormal subtests). Kruskal-Wallis tests and chi-square were used to determine if concussion symptoms or the proportion of abnormal VVE outcomes, respectively, were associated with VV-HEP status. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferonni corrections were used to determine concussion symptom (α = 0.017 a priori) and VVE (α = 0.005 a priori) differences in VV-HEP status.